WHAT IS ARCHITECTURE

A lot of people have different opinions about what architecture means and entails. But in this article, I am going to discuss the terms architecture in a broader but simple approach with respect to building, because the word “architecture” is also use in some field of study.
I will also emphasise on architectural theory, Morden concept of architecture.
WHAT IS ARCHITECTURE :
“Architecture” can mean:
1- A general term to describe
buildings and other physical
structures.
2- The art and science of
designing and erecting
buildings and other physical
structures.
3- The style and method of
design and construction of
buildings and other physical
structures.
4- The practice of the
architect , where architecture
means the offering or
rendering of professional
services in connection with
the design and construction of
buildings, or built
environments. [1]
The design activity of the
architect, from the macro-
level (urban design, landscape
architecture) to the micro-
level (construction details and
furniture).
Therefore in a more concise definition architecture has to do with
the planning, designing and
constructing form, space and
ambience that reflect
functional, technical, social,
environmental, and aesthetic
considerations. It requires the
creative manipulation and
coordination of material,
technology, light and shadow.
Architecture also encompasses
the pragmatic aspects of
realizing buildings and
structures, including
scheduling, cost estimating
and construction
administration. As
documentation produced by
architects, typically drawings,
plans and technical
specifications, architecture
defines the structure and/or
behavior of a building or any
other kind of system that is to
be or has been constructed.
But some renowned architecture The 19th-century English art
critic, John Ruskin , in his Seven
Lamps of Architecture,
published 1849, was much
narrower in his view of what
constituted architecture.
Architecture was the “art
which so disposes and adorns
the edifices raised by men …
that the sight of them”
contributes “to his mental
health, power, and pleasure”.
For Ruskin, the aesthetic was
of overriding significance. His
work goes on to state that a
building is not truly a work of
architecture unless it is in
some way “adorned”. For
Ruskin, a well-constructed,
well-proportioned, functional
building needed string courses
or rustication , at the very
least.
On the difference between
the ideals of architecture and
mere construction, the
renowned 20th-century
architect Le Corbusier wrote:
“You employ stone, wood, and
concrete, and with these
materials you build houses and
palaces: that is construction.
Ingenuity is at work. But
suddenly you touch my heart,
you do me good. I am happy
and I say: This is beautiful.
That is Architecture”.
By contrast, le Corbusier’s
contemporary, Ludwig Mies
van der Rohe said that
architecture begins “when 2

image

bricks are put together.”
Theory of Architecture :
There are different school of thought when it comes to theory of architecture. But the earliest thought is that. A build must have the following basic features.
Durability – it should stand
up robustly and remain in
good condition.
Utility – it should be useful
and function well for the
people using it.
Beauty – it should delight
people and raise their spirits.
According to Vitruvius one of the renowned individual in architecture, said the
architect should strive to fulfill
each of these three attributes
as far as possible. But Leone
Battista Alberti , who
elaborates on the ideas of
Vitruvius in his treatise, De Re
Aedificatoria, saw beauty
primarily as a matter of
proportion, although ornament
also played a part. It follows that The most
important aspect of beauty
was therefore an inherent part
of an object, rather than
something applied
superficially; and was based on
universal, recognisable truths.

Modern concepts of
architecture

The great 19th-century
architect of skyscrapers, Louis
Sullivan, promoted an
overriding precept to
architectural design: ” Form
follows function “.
While the notion that
structural and aesthetic
considerations should be
entirely subject to
functionality was met with
both popularity and
skepticism, it had the effect of
introducing the concept of
“function” in place of Vitruvius’
“utility”. “Function” came to
be seen as encompassing all
criteria of the use, perception
and enjoyment of a building,
not only practical but also
aesthetic, psychological and
cultural.
Meanwhile, the Industrial
Revolution laid open the door
for mass production and
consumption. Aesthetics
became a criterion for the
middle class as ornamented
products, once within the
province of expensive
craftsmanship, became
cheaper under machine
production. Nowadays, computer are now use to produce architectural drawings with applications such as Autoradiography, revitalise architecture etc.
Vernacular architecture
became increasingly
ornamental. House builders
could use current architectural
design in their work by
combining features found in
pattern books and
architectural journals.

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